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Ally – a person who supports and respects members of the LGBTQ+ community
Biological sex – a medical term used to refer to the chromosomal, hormonal, and anatomical characteristics that are used to classify an individual as female, male, or intersex
Cisgender – a gender description for someone whose biological sex and gender identity correspond in the expected way
Gender binary – the idea that there are only two genders which are male and female
Gender expression – the external display of one’s gender, through a combination of clothing, grooming, demeanor, social behavior, and other factors
Gender identity – the internal perception of one’s gender, and how they label themselves, based on how much they align or don’t align with what they understand their options for gender to be
Genderqueer – a gender description for someone who does not identify with the binary of man/woman, similar terms that may be used include gender non-conforming, gender fluid, or non-binary
LGBTQ+ – shorthand for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer (individuals who don’t identify as straight and/or cisgender) and/or Questioning (individuals who are unsure about or exploring their own sexual orientation or gender identity)
Sexual orientation – the type of sexual, romantic, and/or emotional attraction one feels for others
Queer – an umbrella term to describe individuals who don’t identify as straight and/or cisgender
Transgender – a gender description for someone whose biological sex and gender identity do not correspond in the expected way
Transition / transitioning – referring to the process of a transgender person changing aspects of their gender expression to be more congruent with their gender identity
Transman – an identity label sometimes adopted by female-to-male transgender people
Transwoman – an identity label sometimes adopted by male-to-female transgender people



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Adair, Stephanie. “Unity and Difference: A Critical Appraisal of Polarizing Gender Identities.” Hypatia 27, no.4 (2012): 847-863.

Albert, Nicole G. Lesbian decadence: representations in art and literature of fin-de-siècle France. Translated by Nancy Erber and William A. Peniston New York, NY: Harrington Park Press,2016.

Arune, Willow. “Transgender Images in the Media.” In News and Sexuality: Media Portraits of Diversity edited by Laura Casteñada and Shannon B. Campbell, 110–33. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2006.

Baril, Alexandre. “Confessing Society, Confessing Cis-tem: Rethinking Consent through Intimate Images of Trans* People in the Media.” Frontiers 39, no. 2 (2018): 1–25. doi:10.5250/fronjwomestud.39.2.0001.

Barker-Plummer, Bernadette. “Fixing Gwen: News and the Mediation of (Trans)gender Challenges.” Feminist Media Studies 13, no. 4 (2013): 710–24. doi:10.1080/14680777.2012.679289

Battersby, Christine. Gender and Genius: Towards a Feminist Aesthetics. London: Women’s Press, 1989.

Becker, Carol. Zones of Contention: Essays on Art, Institutions, Gender, and Anxiety. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, 1996.

Beemyn, Genny, and Susan Rankin. The Lives of Transgender People. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2011.

Benzel, Kathryn N., and De La Vars, Lauren Pringle, eds. Images of the Self as Female: the Achievement of  Women Artists in Re-Envisioning Feminine Identity. Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press, 1992.

Betancourt, Carlos, ed. Text by Robert Farris Thompson and Paul Laster, Foreword by Richard Blanco. Carlos Betancourt: Imperfect Utopia. New York: Skira Rizzoli I, 2015.

Billard, Thomas J. 2016. “Writing in the Margins: Mainstream News Media Representations of Transgenderism.” International Journal of Communication 10: 4193–4218.

———. Brian L. MacAuley. “‘It’s a Bird! It’s a Plane! It’s a Transgender Superhero!’ Transgender Characters in Marvel, DC, and Image Comics.” In Heroes, Heroines, and Everything in Between: Challenging Gender and Sexuality Stereotypes in Children’s Entertainment Media, edited by CarrieLynn D. Reinhard and Christopher J. Olson, 233–252. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2017.

Booth, E. Tristan. “Queering Queer Eye: The Stability of Gay Identity Confronts the Liminality of Trans Embodiment.” Western Journal of Communication 75, no. 2 (2011): 185–204. doi:10.1080/10570314.2011.553876

Bornstein, Kate. My Gender Workbook, Updated: How to Become a Real Man, a Real Woman, the Real You, or Something Else Entirely. Routledge, 2013.

Bowles, John Parish. Adrian Piper: Race, Gender, and Embodiment. Durham N.C: Duke University Press, 2011.

Bradley, Peri, and Page, James. “David Bowie – the Trans Who Fell to Earth: Cultural Regulation, Bowie and Gender Fluidity.” Continuum 31.4 (2017): 583–595.

Brown, Melissa, Rashawn Ray, Ed Summers, and Neil Fraistat. “#SayHerName: A Case Study of Intersectional Social Media Activism.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 40, no. 11 (2017): 1831–46. doi:10.1080/01419870.2017.1334934

Brubaker, Rogers. Trans: Gender and Race in an Age of Unsettled Identities. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2016.

Bryan-Wilson, Julia, “Queerly made: Harmony Hammond’s Floorpieces,” The Journal of Modern Craft, v. 2, no. 1 (Mar. 2009): 59-79.

Burton, Johanna, Natalie Bell, eds. Trigger: gender as a tool and a weapon New York, NY: New Museum, 2017.

Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge, 1999.

Butt, Gavin. Between you and me: queer disclosures in the New York art world, 1948-1963. Durham: Duke University Press, 2005.

Campbell, Andrew Raymond. QUEER X DESIGN: 50 Years of Signs, Symbols, Banners, Logos, and Graphic Art of LGBTQ. New York : Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers, 2019.

Cannon, Yuliya, Stacy Speedlin, Joe Avera, Derek Robertson, Mercedes Ingram, and Ashely Prado. “Transition, Connection, Disconnection, and Social Media: Examining the Digital Lived Experiences of Transgender Individuals.” Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling11, no. 2, 2017: 68–87. doi:10.1080/15538605.2017.1310006

Capuzza, Jamie C. “Who Defines Gender Diversity? Sourcing Routines and Representation in Mainstream U.S. News Stories about Transgenderism.” International Journal of Transgenderism 15, no. 3–4 (2014): 115–28. doi: 10.1080/15532739.2014.946195

Cárdenas, Micha. “Shifting Futures: Digital Trans of Color Praxis.” Ada: A Journal of Gender, New Media, and Technology 6 (2015). doi:10.7264/N3WH2N8D

Caruso, Hwa Young Choi, and Caruso, Hwa Young Choi. “Art as a Political Act: Expression of Cultural Identity, Self- Identity, and Gender by Suk Nam Yun and Yong Soon Min.” Journal of Aesthetic Education39.3 (2005): 71–87.

Cavalcante, Andre. Struggling for Ordinary: Media and Transgender Belonging in Everyday Life. New York, NY: New York University Press, 2018.

Chávez, Karma R. “Spatializing Gender Performativity: Ecstasy and Possibilities for Livable Life in the Tragic Case of Victoria Arellano.” Women’s Studies in Communication 33, no. 1 (2010): 1–15. doi:10.1080/07491401003669729

Celine, Leboeuf. “The Social Constitution of the Body: Bodily Alienation and Bodily Integrity.” PhD diss., Harvard University, Graduate School of Arts & Sciences, 2016.

Chavoya, C. Ondine and David Frantz. Axis Mundo: Queer Networks in Chicano L.A. Prestel Verlag GmbH & Co KG., 2018.

Costanza-Chock, Sasha, Chris Schweidler, and the Transformative Media Organizing Project. “Toward Transformative Media Organizing: LGBTQ and Two-Spirit Media Work in the United States.” Media, Culture & Society 39, no. 2 (2017): 159–84. doi:10.1177/0163443716674360

County, Jayne, and Rupert Smith. Man Enough to Be a Woman: The Autobiography of Jayne County. London: Serpent’s Tail, 1996.

Curzon, Lucy. “Patronizing Gender: Women, Cultural Identity and State Support of the Visual Arts in Postwar Britain, 1945-1981.” Dalhousie Review 76.3 (1996): 335–370.

Darwin, Helana. “Doing Gender Beyond the Binary: A Virtual Ethnography.” Symbolic Interaction 40, no. 3 (2017): 317– 34. doi:10.1002/symb.316

Davis, Whitney. Queer Beauty: Sexuality and Aesthetics from Winckelmann to Freud and Beyond. New York: Columbia University Press, 2010.

Davy, Zowie. “Trans Intelligentsia A Western Pictorial?” TSQ: Transgender Studies Quarterly. 2, no. 4 (2015): 676-678.

De La Haye, Amy, and Wilson, Elizabeth, eds. Defining Dress: Dress as Object, Meaning and Identity. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1999.

De Villiers, Nicholas. Opacity and the Closet: Queer Tactics in Foucault, Barthes, and Warhol. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2012.

Diamond, Robert, “Revealed: the tradition of male homoerotic art,” The Archive: the Journal of the Leslie/Lohman Gay Art Foundation, issue 34 (2010): 18-21.

Doyle, Jennifer, Jonathan Flatley, and José Esteban Muñoz, eds. Pop Out: Queer Warhol. Durham: Duke University Press, 1996.

Drucker, Zackary. “Gender Is a Playground.” Aperture 229 (2017): 24–31.

Ekins, Richard, and Dave King. “The Emergence of New Transgendering Identities in the Age of the Internet.” In Transgender Identities: Towards a Social Analysis of Gender Diversity, edited by Sally Hines and Tam Sanger, 25–42. New York, NY: Routledge, 2010.

Fischer, Mia. “#Free_CeCe: The Material Convergence of Social Media Activism.” Feminist Media Studies 16, no. 5 (2016): 755–71. doi:10.1080/14680777.2016.1140668

———.“Queer and Feminist Approaches to Transgender Media Studies.” In Feminist Approaches to Media Theory and Research, edited by Dustin Harp, Jaime Loke, and Ingrid Bachmann, 93–107. Cham, CH: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018.

Funk, Steven. “A Trans*+ Media Literacy Framework for Navigating the Dynamically Shifting Terrain of Gender in Media: Considering Assessment of Key Competencies.” In Promoting Global Competencies Through Media Literacy, edited by Melda N. Yildiz, Steven S. Funk, and Belinha S. De Abreu, 216–39. Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2018.

Getsy, David John. Abstract Bodies: Sixties Sculpture in the Expanded Field of Gender. New Haven (Conn.): Yale University Press, 2015.

———.Queer. London: Whitechapel Gallery, 2016.

Gossett, Reina, Eric A. Stanley, and Johanna Burton, eds.   Trap Door: Trans Cultural Production and the Politics of Visibility. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2017.

Halberstam, J. Jack. In a Queer Time and Place: Transgender Bodies, Subcultural Lives. New York, NY: New York University Press, 2005.

———. “The Transgender Look.” In The Feminism and Visual Culture Reader, edited by Amelia Jones. New York, NY: Routledge, 2010.

———.Trans*: a quick and quirky account of gender variability. Jackson: University of California Press, 2018.

———.Female Masculinity. Duke University Press, 2019.

Hammond, Harmony. Lesbian Art in America: A Contemporary History. New York: Rizzoli, 2000.

Heinz, Matthew. Entering Transmasculinity: The Inevitability of Discourse. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2016.

Hess, Linda M. “‘My Whole Life I’ve Been Dressing up like a Man’: Negotiations of Queer Aging and Queer Temporality in the TV Series Transparent.” European Journal of American Studies 11, no.3   (2017). doi:10.4000/ejas.11702

Hill, Darryl B. “Coming to Terms: Using Technology to Know Identity.” Sexuality and Culture9, no. 3 (2005): 24–52. doi: 10.1007/s12119-005-1013-x

Horak, Laura. 2014. “Trans on YouTube: Intimacy, Visibility, Temporality.” TSQ Transgender Studies Quarterly1, no. 4 (2014): 572– 85. doi: 10.1215/23289252-2815255

Johnson, E. Patrick, ed. No Tea, No Shade: New Writings in Black Queer Studies. Durham: Duke University Press, 2016.

Johnson, Julia R. “Cisgender Privilege, Intersectionality, and the Criminalization of CeCe McDonald: Why Intercultural Communication Needs Transgender Studies.” Journal of International and Intercultural Communication6, no.2 (2013): 135–144. doi:10.1080/17513057.2013.776094

Katz, Jonathan D., “Background to an exhibition, or why only now do we get a gay show in a national museum?” The Archive: the Journal of the Leslie/Lohman Gay Art Foundation, no. 36 (fall 2010): 8-13.

Krueger, Evan A. and Sean D. Young. “Twitter: A Novel Tool for Studying the Health and Social Needs of Transgender Communities.” JMIR Mental Health 2, no. 2 (2015). doi:10.2196/mental.4113

Landau, Jamie. “Reproducing and Transgressing Masculinity: A Rhetorical Analysis of Women Interacting With Digital Photographs of Thomas Beatie.” Women’s Studies in Communication 35, no. 2 (2012): 178–203. doi: 10.1080/07491409.2012.724527

Lester, Paul Martin. “From Abomination to Indifference: A Visual Analysis of Transgender Stereotypes in the Media.” In Transgender Communication Studies: Histories, Trends, and Trajectories, edited by Leland G. Spencer and Jamie C. Capuzza. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2015.

Leung, Helen Hok-Sze. “Trans on Screen.” In Transgender China, edited by Howard Chiang, 183–98. New York NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.

Levine, Cary, “Manly crafts: Mike Kelley’s (oxy)moronic gender bending,” Art Journal, v. 69, no. 1-2 (spring-summer 2010): 74-91.

Lewis, Vek. “Performing Translatinidad: Miriam the Mexican Transsexual Reality Show Star and the Tropicalization of Difference in Anglo-Australian Media.” Sexualities12, no. 2 (2009): 225–50. doi:10.1177/1363460708100920

Lord, Catherine, and Richard Meyer. Art & Queer Culture. London: Phaidon, 2019.

MacKenzie, Gordene, and Mary Marcel. “Media Coverage of the Murder of U.S. Transwomen of Color.” In Local Violence, Global Media: Feminist Analyses of Gendered Representations, edited by Lisa M. Cuklanz and Sujata Moorti, 79–106. New York, NY: Peter Lang, 2009.

MacLachlan, Alice & Sreedhar, Susanne. “Complicating Out: The Case of Queer Femmes.” In Passing/Out: Sexual Identity Veiled and Revealed, edited by Kelby Harrison & Dennis Cooley, 43-74. London: Routledge, 2016.

Marciano, Avi. “Living the VirtuReal: Negotiating Transgender Identity in Cyberspace.” Journal of  Computer- Mediated Communication19, no. 4 (2014): 824–38. doi:10.1111/jcc4.12081

Marvin, Amy. “Technology and Narratives of Continuity in Transgender Experiences.” Feminist Philosophy Quarterly 1, no. 1 (2015). doi:10.5206/fpq/2015.1.6

McMahon, Marci R. Domestic Negotiations: Gender, Nation, and Self-Fashioning in US Mexicana and Chicana Literature and Art. New Brunswick, N.J: Rutgers University Press, 2013.

McNabb, Charlie. NonbinaryGender Identities. History, Culture, Resources. Blue Ridge Summit: Rowman & Littlefield Publ, 2018

Miller, Quinn. “Queer Exteriors: Transgender Aesthetics in Early Gay and Lesbian Advertising.” In Transgender Migrations: The Bodies, Borders and Politics of Transition, edited by Trystan Cotton, 76-91. New York, NY: Routledge, 2011.

Murray, Derek Conrad. Queering Post-Black Art: Artists Transforming African-American Identity After Civil Rights. London: I.B. Taurus, 2016.

Nestle, Joan, Clare Howell and Riki Wilchins, eds. GenderQueer: Voices from Beyond the Sexual Binary. Los Angeles: Alyson Books, 2008.

Oakley, Abigail. “Supporting One Another: Nonbinary Community Building on Tumblr.” In Sex in the Digital Age, edited by Paul G. Nixon and Isabel K. Düsterhöft. New York, NY: Routledge, 2018.

Olds, Kirsten. ““Gay Life Artists”: Les Petites Bonbons and Camp Performativity in the 1970s, Art Journal, 72:2 (2013):16-33, doi: 10.1080/00043249.2013.10791028

Perry, Gill, ed. Gender and Art. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999.

Pilcher, Alex. A Queer Little History of Art. London: Tate Publishing, 2017.

Prosser, Jay. Second Skins: The Body Narratives of Transsexuality. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 1998.

Raun, Tobias, and Cáel M. Keegan. “Selfies, Sex, and the Visibility Dilemma in Trans Male Online Cultures.” In Sex in the Digital Age, edited by Paul G. Nixon and Isabel K. Düsterhöft, 89-100. New York, NY: Routledge. 2018.

Rawson, K. J. “Transgender Worldmaking in Cyberspace: Historical Activism on the Internet.” QED 1, no. 2 (2014): 38– 60. doi:10.14321/qed.1.2.0038

Reed, Christopher. Art and Homosexuality: A History of Ideas. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Riemer, Matthew, and Leighton Brown. We Are Everywhere: Protest, Power, and Pride in the History of Queer Liberation. California: Ten Speed Press, 2019.

Richardson, Niall. Transgressive Bodies: Representations in Film and Popular Culture. Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2010.

Riggs, Damien W. “What Makes a Man? Thomas Beatie, Embodiment, and ‘Mundane Transphobia’.” Feminism & Psychology 24, no. 2 (2014): 157–71. doi:10.1177/0959353514526221

Rivera-Servera, Ramón H. Performing Queer Latinidad: Dance, Sexuality, Politics. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2013.

Salamon, Gayle. Assuming a Body: Transgender and Rhetorics of Materiality. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2010.

Saslow, James M. Pictures and Passions: A History of Homosexuality in the Visual Arts. New York: Viking, 1999.

Sawelson-Gorse, Naomi, ed. Women in Dada: Essays on Sex, Gender, and Identity. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1998.

Schilt, Kristen, and Laurel Westbrook. “Doing Gender, Doing Heteronormativity: ‘Gender Normals,’ Transgender People, and the Social Maintenance of Heterosexuality.” Gender & Society23, no. 4, 2009: 440–64. doi: 10.1177/0891243209340034

Schultz, Stacey, and Schultz, Stacey. “Adrian Piper: Race, Gender, and Embodiment.” Woman’s Art Journal no. 1 (Sept. 2011): 46–47.

Scott, Joan W. “Gender: A Useful Category for Historical Analysis.” American Historical Review 91.5 (1986): 1053– 1075.

Shapiro, Eve. Gender Circuits: Bodies and Identities in a Technological Age. New York, NY: Routledge, 2015.

Siebler, Kay. “Transgender Transitions: Sex/Gender Binaries in the Digital Age.” Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health 16, no. 1 (2012): 74–99. doi:10.1080/19359705.2012.632751

Silver, Erin, and Amelia Jones, eds. Otherwise: Imagining Queer Feminist Art Histories. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2016.

Sloop, John M. Disciplining Gender: Rhetorics of Sex Identity in Contemporary U.S. Culture. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 2004.

Simpson, Pat. “Peripheralising Patriarchy? Gender and Identity in Post-Soviet Art: A View from the West.” Oxford Art Journal27.3 (2004): 389.

Spencer, Leland G., and Jamie C. Capuzza, eds. 2015. Transgender Communication Studies: Histories, Trends, and Trajectories. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

Squires, Catherine R., and Daniel C. Brouwer. “In/Discernible Bodies: The Politics of Passing in Dominant and Marginal Media.” Critical Studies in Media Communication19 no. 3, 2002: 283–310. doi:10.1080/07393180216566

Steinbock, Eliza. “Photographic Flashes: On Imaging Trans Violence in Heather Cassils’ Durational Art.” Photography and Culture 7, no.3 (2014): 253–68. doi:10.2752/175145214X14153800234775

———.Shimmering Images: Trans Cinema, Embodiment, and the Aesthetics of Change. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2019.

Sycamore, Matt Bernstein, ed. Nobody Passes: Rejecting the Rules of Gender and Conformity. Emeryville: Seal Press, 2006.

Summers, Claude J. The Queer Encyclopedia of the Visual Arts. San Francisco: Cleis Press, 2004.

Tanis, Justin. “Queer Bodies, Sacred Art.” PhD diss., Graduate Theological Union, 2017.

Van Deven, Mandy. “Bending Gender.” Herizons 31.3 (2018): 90–92.

Vivienne, Son. “‘I Will Not Hate Myself Because You Cannot Accept Me’: Problematizing Empowerment and Gender-Diverse Selfies.” Popular Communication15, no.2 (2017): 126–40. doi:10.1080/15405702.2016.1269906

Wade, Mike. “How Trans Artists Are Moving from Fringes to Top of Fringe Bill; With Gender Identity Being This Year’s Topic, Mike Wade Hears of Breakout Stars’ struggle. (News).” The Times(London, England) August 9, 2017: https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/how-trans-artists-are-moving-from-fringes-to-top-of-fringe-bill-kmhwb9h5w

Whiting, Nel. “Gender and National Identity in David Allan’s Small, Domestic and Conversation Paintings.” Journal of Scottish Historical Studies34.1 (2014): 20–39.

Zimman, Lal. “‘The Other Kind of Coming Out’: Transgender People and the Coming Out Narrative Genre.” Gender and Language3, no. 1 (2009). doi:10.1558/genl.v3i1.53


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